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The world's first official study of the characteristics of dust after a manicure procedure was conducted by SheMax, a Ukrainian manufacturer of professional equipment for beauty salons.

SheMax has applied to one of the leading universities in Ukraine - Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University to conduct research experiments to study the characteristics of dust generated during the manicure.

On April 22, 2021, the head of the research department of DNU, candidate of technical sciences Oleksiy Polishko and associate professor of chemical sciences Volodymyr Polonsky conducted a comprehensive analysis of dust after manicure, determined the size and shape of particles and them movement indoors during the working day.

Dust is a dangerous and harmful factor of production. Any industrial dust generated during the manicure procedure is a very dangerous factor and causes occupational chronic diseases.

The manicurist uses a professional nail file or a specialized electric device - a milling machine with various attachments - to create the shape of the nail, remove the remnants of working material or remove the old varnish. During the work, a large amount of dust is formed, which negatively affects the health of the manicurist.

When air is inhaled, manicure dust enters the lungs, the particles are trapped in the upper respiratory tract and cause irritation and even inflammation. The most harmful are particles smaller than 5 microns, which when ingested into the lungs contribute to the compaction of lung tissue and pneumoconiosis. Dust generated during the removal of artificial material can accumulate in the cabin air. Due to its small size, such dust remains in the air for a long time and easily enters the respiratory tract. Frequent contact with dust provokes diseases that increase depending on the professional experience of the beauty master.

 

Many microscopic particles in the dust structure have dangerously sharp edges and torn corners. Accumulating on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin, they are fixed there and lead to chronic diseases. The complex effects of dust and harmful chemicals in the composition of materials can lead to the development of occupational diseases in manicurists.

 

  • Allergic bronchitis causes respiratory pathology. The cause of the disease is periodic contact with the allergen. Treatment is carried out with the use of antihistamines, antibiotics, corticosteroids. When the master repeatedly comes into contact with dust, which is an allergen, he is forced to regularly re-apply the drug.

  • Bronchial asthma, which has the character of chronic respiratory disease.

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease restricts the movement of air in the airways due to the accumulation of various toxic substances.

  • The appearance of the disease on the eyes - conjunctivitis, provokes aerosol antiseptic, manicure dust, and fine particles of skin that settle on the mucous membrane of the eye. This leads to the development of an inflammatory process in the eyes.

  • Dermatic skin diseases from contact with dust. With constant exposure to allergens and neglect of treatment, dermatitis becomes chronic and progresses to more serious disease. It is eczema.

  • Fungal nail diseases. The infection is transmitted through the remnants of manicure dust, which is in the workplace of the master and in the air of the beauty salon. 

 

The presence of dangerous toxic components in the manicure is like poison for the body. Varnish and acrylic contain a synthetic component - methacrylate. Most often it leads to allergies and is part of varnishes with a low price segment. In addition to methacrylate, manufacturers use several aggressive components: formaldehyde, toluene, dibutyl phthalate, acetophenone, butyl acetate, formaldehyde resins, nitrocellulose, camphor, rosin, diacetone alcohol.

 

1. Research of the form of dust for manicure

In the study to determine the shape of the dust for manicure used samples were obtained by a manicurist in one working day. For the study, the master did not use electrical equipment to collect dust, all samples were collected from the working surface of the manicure table to preserve the original appearance and transfer the actual weight of dust left after each client.

 

Dust samples were obtained by sawing nails with a Marathon 3 Champion cutter using a red hard alloy nozzle and a 180 nail file to shape the nails.

The room where the dust samples were collected is 4 x 4 meters with a ceiling height of 2.4 meters, where one window is installed. The office has one master, who has a desk, two chairs, a pedicure chair, a cabinet with sterilization equipment, a sink, and air conditioning.

Dust samples (Fig. 1) were obtained from 8 customers in one working day from one master without using a vacuum cleaner to collect dust. By all stages of a full-fledged manicure from the removal of the previous gel varnish and the application of a new layer, the following dust samples were obtained weighing: №1 - 0.90 g; №2 - 0.34 g; №3 - 0.41 g; №4 - 0.49 g; №5 - 0.67 g; №6 - 0.42 g; №7 - 0.41 g; №8 - 0.53 g.

As a result, we can conclude that on average at one working day at the workplace of 8 customers falls 4.17 g of dust, which can be seen with the eyes and measured by scales. But a large amount of dust remains in the air for a long time and moves from place to place.

Figure 1. General view of dust samples for manicure

The test samples contain organic nail and gel dust, which is formed when removing the protective and colored coating of the nail. Different weight in dust samples depends on the length, design, and availability of additional nail base, acrylic, powder.

The obtained samples were sent for microscopic examination, sieve, and sediment analysis.

Figure 2 shows photomicrographs of dust particles obtained on a transmission microscope Optica Microscoper Italy B-190 at a magnification of 25 and 40 times.

 

Figure 2. The shape and size of dust particles for manicure.

Мікроскоп Optica Microscoper  Italy B-190

 

The sizes and the form of dust particles are the most various, but most often it is scales or plates of an oblong form with torn uneven edges in the sizes from tens to several hundred micrometers. Particles with the same size in three dimensions and with a large length in one dimension (fibers, needles, sticks) are practically not observed.

 

At a magnification of 170 and 500 times, obtained using a microscope MIM-7 (Fig. 3), you can determine the shape and size of dust particles. As you can see, these are plates of a very irregular shape with sharp serrated edges, which can stay in a weightless state for a long time and move in the air, forming aerosols.

Figure 3. The shape and size of dust particles for manicure. MIM-7 microscope


 

2. Research of the dispersion of manicure dust particles

Dispersion is a physical quantity that characterizes the size of suspended particles in dispersed systems. The variance is measured using a micron or micrometer (abbreviation micron).

Conditionally allocate dust:

1. By size:

- coarse (particle size greater than 50 microns)

- medium dispersed (from 10 to 50 microns)

- fine (particle size less than 10 microns)

2. By origin:

-     inorganic (mineral, metal);

-     organic (vegetable, animal);

-     mixed.

3. By dispersion:

-     visible (more than 10 microns);

-     microscopic (from 0.25 to 10 microns);

-     ultramicroscopic (less than 0.25 microns).

Manicure dust samples consist of particles that are different in size, a comprehensive approach is used to determine their dispersion. It consisted in the fact that at first a sieve analysis was carried out, as a result of which the smallest particle of dust was separated. Then for this fraction was determined by the particle size distribution by analysis of sediment.

Fig. 4 shows a general view of the various fractions of the sample after sieve analysis.

(А)

(В)

(С)

Figure 4. General view of the samples after sieve analysis: A - on a sieve of 500 microns; In - on a sieve of 250 microns; C - particles smaller than 250 microns

   
   
 

The distribution of dust particles is shown in fig.5 by fractions in percent.

 

Figure 5. Distribution of dust particles by fractions after sieve analysis

The sample contains a small amount (1.1%) of large particles in the form of nail residues, 37.1% are particles from 250 to 500 microns, and 61.8% are particles smaller than 250 microns.

A dust fraction with a particle size of fewer than 250  microns was used to determine its size distribution by gravitational field deposition, which is to measure the weight of the platform suspended in an aqueous suspension of dust as the powder particles settle.

The precipitation of 0.5% of the suspension was performed in distilled water and the dependence of the deposition rate of the particles of the dispersion phase on their size under the action of gravity. Under the measurement conditions (temperature 20 ° C), the density of the solvent was 0.9982 g / cm3, and the dynamic viscosity was 1.002 ∙ 103 Pa ∙ s.

 

The dependence on settling is linearized in the coordinates τ / m from τ (m is the mass of deposited particles, τ is the settling time). From the obtained dependence, the angular slope coefficient is defined as the value inverse to Qm (mass of powder that settles for an infinite time), and the shear coefficient τ0 / Qm, where τ0 is half the settling time.

The density of dust particles was determined separately by the psychometric method. The essence of the psychometric method is that the density of the test sample (ρpil) is determined by immersion in a liquid of known density. Distilled water with a known water density ρ = 1.00 g / cm3 was used as the auxiliary liquid.

First, the mass of the dry pycnometer m1 was measured. Then a sample (part of a sample of a substance or material of the specified mass) of the investigated dust m weighing 1.00 g was used. The sample was added to the pycnometer - a mass of m2 and filled with water to the measuring mark. The pycnometer with water and sample was heated to boiling. Thus, the air contained in the pores of the investigated dust completely evaporates from it. Then the pycnometer with the sample and water was weighed again and the mass of m3 was determined. After that, the pycnometer was washed and filled with distilled water to the measuring line, and the pycnometer was weighed again - to determine the mass of the pycnometer with water m4. 

After that, the actual dust density was determined by the formula:

The obtained value of ρ dust = was used for further calculations of the particle size distribution of dust.

Using the obtained parameters, the differential particle distribution curve in the dust sample was calculated (Fig. 6), the minimum and most probable particle radii in the dust sample. Criterion F shows the difference between the average statistical values of the distribution of dust particles by their size.


 

Figure 6. Differential curve of particle distribution of manicure dust

According to the results of the calculation by deposition, the minimum radius of the particles of the investigated dust sample is 15.7 μm; the most probable particle size is 91.05 μm.

Thus, in the dust fraction smaller than 250 μm, most particles have a size of approximately 90 μm.

3. Research of concentration of dust in the room of manicure salon

The beauty salon used a multifunctional air quality detector BENETECH GM8804, which allows you to dynamically determine the concentrations of PM2.5 (2.5 μm) and PM10 (10 μm) in real-time and detect the presence of fine particles, dust and other inclusions in the air. 

The GM8804 analyzer is based on the technology of laser photometry of scattered light. The minimum particle size resolution is 0.3 μm.

The most dangerous are the sizes of suspended dust particles less than 10 microns (PM10). 80 - 90% of dust particles up to 10 μm in size are retained in the upper respiratory tract.

According to the GM 8804 project, after reaching a dust concentration of 75 μg / m3, the level of pollution is considered harmful to health, and after 150 μg / m3 - very harmful. Accordingly, the screen backlight changes from green to yellow (dangerous) or red (very dangerous), and a beep sounds.

 

Determination of dust concentration in the air of the manicure salon was carried out on April 20, 2021 in the manicure office for one working master with one client, room size 4 x 4 meters. The office has one window. The work used a device for removing gel varnish - milling machine Marathon 3 Champion with a red carbide nozzle, and to give shape to the nails - a file 180 grain. The results were obtained starting at 9 am from the first client in the manicure room. Exhaust ventilation on the ceiling and air conditioning in the area of ​​the manicure procedure wasn’t used during the measurements.

For the relevance of the study, three indicators were established to determine the movement of dust indoors:

  • indicator of concentration of dust in hands of the master at the moment of removal of a finishing covering from nails

  • dust concentration indicator above the master's head

  • dust concentration indicator at a distance of 1 m from the master

To determine exactly how the dust moves in the room, we set four time intervals to record the indicators of the air quality detector BENETECH GM8804.

  • before work

  • while working

  • 15 minutes after removing the top layer

  • 30 minutes after removing the top layer

The obtained measurement results are recorded in two tables. The first table contains data without the use of dust collectors, the second table with the use of desktop dust collector Style PRO brand SheMax. Data was recorded in one office at 9:00 on different days.

 

Table 1. The results of determining the concentration of dust particles (μg / m3) in the air of the manicure salon without using a dust collector

 

Measurement time

Measurement area

Measurement results

PM 2,5

PM 10

min

value

mid

value

max

value

min

value

mid

value

max

value

Before work

Client's hands

8

15

19

8

15

20

The head of the master

8

15

19

8

15

21

1 m from the master

8

15

19

8

15

20

While working

Client's hands

15

19

29

14

22

38

The head of the master

15

17

29

15

18

30

1 m from the master

10

14

21

10

14

20

15 minutes after work

Client's hands

13

20

30

13

21

33

The head of the master

19

24

45

139

26

44

1 m from the master

13

20

29

13

22

38

30 minutes after work

Client's hands

10

16

24

10

15

24

The head of the master

16

20

32

17

22

38

1 m from the master

16

22

32

17

24

33

 

Table 2. The results of determining the concentration of dust particles (μg / m3) in the air of the manicure salon using a dust collector “SheMax Style Pro”

 

Measurement time

Measurement area

Measurement results

PM 2,5

PM 10

min

value

mid

value 

max

value

min

value

mid

value 

max

value

Before work

Client's hands

8

15

19

8

15

20

The head of the master

8

15

19

8

15

21

1 m from the master

8

15

20

8

16

20

While working

Client's hands

11

16

21

10

19

24

The head of the master

13

16

23

14

17

25

1 m from the master

10

14

20

10

14

20

15 minutes after work

Client's hands

9

16

20

9

15

20

The head of the master

13

20

29

13

21

34

1 m from the master

10

15

21

10

14

20

30 minutes after work

Client's hands

9

14

19

9

15

20

The head of the master

13

20

27

13

20

29

1 m from the master

10

19

25

12

18

21

 

The obtained measurement results showed that during the manicure procedure in the area of the client's hands and the master's head accumulates a dangerous amount of particles that form a cloud of dust.

 

Consider the movement of dust on the example of one manicure procedure. When removing the gel coating from the nail plate, the masters use a milling machine at a speed of 20,000 - 50,000 revolutions per minute. As a result of such manipulation three fractions of dust visible to eyes are formed:

  • particles larger than 500 μm (very large dust particles)

  • particles with sizes from 250 to 500 microns

  • particles smaller than 250 microns

The first and second fractions of dust under the action of gravity quickly fall. The third particle (less than 250 μm) rises very slowly under the action of the law of momentum. Only after 15 minutes, fine dust accumulates at the level of the head of the master and the client, and therefore quickly reaches the lungs when breathing. After 30 minutes, no decrease in the concentration of dust in the air is observed. Fine dust sinks very slowly to the bottom if there is no strong airflow that can change its coordination.

When using the professional dust collector Shemax Style PRO during the manicure procedure, there is a decrease in the concentration of dust during operation. Much of the pollen immediately enters the filter and doesn't fly around the room and form a dust cloud with a high concentration of dust.

 

4. Recommendations on labor protection for employees of manicure salons

The nature of the effect of dust on the human body depends on the following factors: the shape of dust particles, dispersion, and chemical composition. Dust, getting into the human body, promotes fibrogenic influence, irritates the mucous membrane of respiratory tracts. Settling in the lungs, dust lingers in them. Prolonged inhalation of dust causes occupational lung disease - pneumoconiosis.

There is the Law of Ukraine "On Ensuring the Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of the Population" [4], instructions approved by the Ukrainian Union of Associations, Enterprises and Consumer Services (dated August 27, 2000, № 20) and GSTU 201-14. 99 "Manicure and pedicure services. General technical conditions" [5]. There are also instructions on labor protection for manicurists [6]. Current sanitary standards №2.2.2.022-99 don't take into account the hygienic requirements for several new household services, including manicure and cosmetic technological processes of body care, which need to be updated and improved to identify priority risk factors for staff and the public [7].

Before general advice to remember the capture of the lungs, manicurists must follow the rules:

-     use special desktop or built-in hoods, and vacuum cleaners of SheMax;

-     change disposable masks after each client or every 2 hours;

-     require masters to turn on the SheMax hood in a timely manner;

-     use a high-quality milling machine, with which you can quickly perform all the basic manipulations with nails; use a system with keratolytics;

-     ventilate the room often;

-     go out into the fresh air every 2 - 3 hours;

-     for disinfection of the room use a bactericidal lamp SheMax; to use high-quality hypoallergenic materials in work;

-     strengthen the immune system and lead a healthy lifestyle;

-     give up smoking; If you have symptoms such as cough, tearing, or runny nose, see your doctor and follow all his instructions.

 


 

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